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Following consultation, a physical check-up, for signs of disease is conducted.  Together with the medical history, the examination aids in determining the correct diagnosis.

A broad spectrum of tests involving the 4 basic criteria, listed below, are used, where necessary to ascertain specifics of diagnosis.  This covers all biological systems.

  • Inspection (looking)
  • Auscultation (listening)
  • Palpation (touching)
  • Percussion (tapping)

These techniques combine both modern and traditional methods.  They do not involve harm to the body, such as an x-ray or biopsy.

Physical examination is also explained in the text of ‘Clinical Examination‘, second edition by Epstein, Perkin, de Bone and Cookson

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